Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 1 Notes
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B Pharm Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 1 Notes 2022
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Introduction to Pharmacognosy:
(a) Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy
(b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture
(c) Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and
mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).
Classification of drugs:
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and sero
taxonomical classification of drugs
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:
Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic, physical,
chemical and biological methods and properties. Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leafconstants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida.
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin:
Cultivation and Collection of drugs of natural origin
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants. Plant hormones and their applications. Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants
Conservation of medicinal plants
Plant tissue culture:
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Edible vaccines
Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:
Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine. Introduction to secondary metabolites:
Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins
Other Subjects Notes Given below :
Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing
Fibers – Cotton, Jute, Hemp
Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens
General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation,
evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as Pharmaceutical
Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primary metabolites:
Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey
Proteins and Enzymes : Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain,
serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin). Lipids(Waxes, fats, fixed oils) : Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax
Novel medicinal agents from marine sou
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